31 January 2014

Purchasing Parity w.r.t. Rising Petrol Prices

Purchasing Parity w.r.t. Rising Petrol Prices

May 17, 2013 issue of Forbes India, one of the most respected business magazines in the world, carried a snippet on the sales of Small Cars in the last two financial years compared with the sales of SUVs in the same period and connecting the same with the Petrol prices. The conclusion drawn after comparing the two figures was as follows:

“With the increasing prices of Petrol, you would not be wrong to expect car buyers to prefer smaller, more fuel efficient cars. However, car sales data shows that instead of opting for more fuel efficient variants, buyers are going for diesel models that cost and pollute more, but lower running costs… The data shows more people are opting for diesel-guzzling (and therefore more polluting) SUVs, rather than petrol-efficient small or compact cars…)

If you read the above paragraph, you would conclude that we, as consumers, prefer to buy diesel vehicles, which have a running cost lesser than that of Petrol vehicles. There’s a merit in this argument. As a consumer, I would buy a product that has a lesser recurring cost. Now, let’s look at the data and try and understand where the journalist must have gone wrong.

% Change
Small Car Sales
SUV Sales

In 2011-12, the Auto Industry sold 1,881,179 vehicles. The figure was at 1,973,465 in 2012-13, an increase of 4.91%.It is safe to assume here that this increase of 92,286 vehicles went to the SUV segment. There has been a de-growth of 6.43% in Small Car Sales, a figure of 97,602, which, according to the journalist has moved to the SUV segment. 

Social media marketing in India

Social media marketing is considered a powerful weapon in the field of online marketing. It is mainly used to build awareness of a brand and credibility of a business online with customer or create awareness for brand. It is also vital for a company that is looking forward to actively engage with their customers.
In India, people  mainly use facebook for most of the time as per survey report.

Things to keep in mind while social media marketing:-

User engagement – Brand should keep their user engagement or keep involving their customer in their products.

Active participation – It is important to be more active if a business wants to achieve desired results. One needs to log in regularly to check what is going on. A proper plan should be in place to know what is expected from the audience. When you are more active, you will come to know what people have to say about you, your business and your products or services. You will also come to know about the needs of your customers.

Images and videos – Add images and videos to increase awareness on your social media profiles. Visitors are more attracted to images and videos. Ensure that the images and videos you post tell more about your story.

Benefits from social media marketing :-

Exposure – People will be directly expose to the brands and their products and can take ready information whichever they want on click of button and they can share that information with their family and friends.

Easy building Fan – They can actually calculate their brand following and liking towards particular product.

Competitive Edge – As digital business creates very competitive market we can have check our competitors move also.
So marketing team has to keep some thing in mind before developing their marketing plan for particular brand because social media is two way communication between brand and customer using those brands they can write anything they wish about their brand.

Basic Expectation of Indian Car Owners

Basic Expectation of Indian Car Owners
With a majority of Indian car buyers hailing from middle class families, the demand for small and beautiful cars is going to remain evergreen.
Its ironical that people in India are Fuel Efficiency conscious even in D segment of cars. That is the reason why they prefer diesel engine cars than the petrol engine cars. Diesel cars are more preferable because they provide better mileage than petrol engines because of compression engine ration in diesel cars is higher.
Therefore, diesel engines seems more successful than petrol engines in this segment. Noting this basic expectation, Volkswagen has taken in charge. If the media reports are to be believed, the Volkswagen Rocktan might be launched with both type of powertrain i.e. petrol and diesel.
Car makers from around the globe too are in no way hesitating to attract the Indian buyer with their diesel engine fuel efficient car offerings.
Another major expectation of Indian car owners is the After Sales Services provided by the manufacturers, though now a days its provided by every manufacturer in India, the expectation level has risen to ‘Who provided the Best After Sales Services’ , i.e. providing extra polishing, extra dusting of car seats, decorating with extra accessories without the inclusion in the final costs. The manufacturers are keeping in concern for every petty thing that may attract and cherish their customers.
At the national level, the customers in the relatively larger cities are more satisfied than those in the smaller cities. This may be a reflection of the growing expectations in the smaller cities. The manufacturers will do well to understand those. The customer expectations even at the bottom end are rising.

Automobile Industry in India

Automobile industry in India is one of the largest in the world and the fastest growing globally.
Indian manufactures over 11 million vehicles including 2 wheelers and 4 wheelers and exports about 1.5 million every year. It is the world's second largest manufacturer of motorcycles, annual sales exceeding 8.5 million in 2010 . Indian passenger car and commercial vehicle manufacturing industry is the seventh largest in the world with an annual production of more than 2.6 million units in 2010 in 2011 India emerged as Asia's fourth largest export of passenger cars, behind Japan, South Korea, and Thailand.

Post liberalization in 1991 and gradual weakening of the licence raj, a number of Indian and multinational car company launched operations. Since when , automotive component and auto mobile manufacturing growth has accelerated to meet domestic and export demands.

From February 2009, monthly sales of passenger cars in India exceeded 1 lac units and has since grown rapidly to record monthly height of 182992 units in October 2009.
From 2003 to 2010, car sales in India have progressed at a CAGR of 13 .7 percent and with only 10 per cent of Indian households owning a car in 2010 where are this figure reaches 80 % in Switzerland for example. This progression is unlikely to stop in the coming decade. Congestion of Indian roads, more than the market demand, will likely be the limiting factor. SIAM is the apex industry body representing all the vehicle manufacturers, home-grown and international in India. 
Study can be done on the consumer behavior and advertising effectiveness of emergence of D & E segment cars in India.  The objective of the research can be to find out the present status of the automobile industries in India and to study the consumer acceptability to watch the high end and purchasing power for expensive cars. The motto can be for the purchase of the D & E segment cars is not just for increasing the society status, but for more of a convenience, efficiency and durability purpose.

Why article submission is important?

Among all the Search Engine Optimization (SEO) techniques, article submission is one of the most successful and result oriented technique. Article submission generally refers to the writing of articles that are relevant to your online business and then getting them added to the popular article submission directories.
What should be content of an article?
In article if suppose one is doing an business of kitchen consultancy they can include each and every thing related to that business but article should be jargon it cannot contain other information other than kitchen consultancy.
As mentioned above once you write your article you have to post to many directories which allow you to add your content for free and they can list your article in their directory, Through which many readers can read your article and which can help you for online marketing, publicity or advertising of your business or product on World Wide Web.
Keyword rich articles allow the website to convey their information and content to the popular search engines and that too in the most effective way.
What are keywords?
Keywords plays an important role in article writing before an article one need to keep in mind or have to look for keywords which people try to search in your business range so they can write can article regarding such keywords or related to that keywords.
If a customer is searching for some information like Eye Hospital in India, the terms that will be often used include best eye hospital, eye hospital, top eye hospital and other related keywords. Greater the number of articles with these top searched keywords, higher will be the ranking of your website.
Things to keep in mind while writing Articles.
·         It should be original and information rich.
·         It should be keyword rich but not excessive to the point of keyword stuffing.
·         The average length of articles should be between 500 and 700.
·         Giving subheadings, bullets and numbering to articles make it presentable and easy to read for potential customers.
·         You should have unique title including your main keyword so that web crawler an identify it can it can be helpful for backlink.

How online marketing help in Business and is effective - Part 1

The world is growing at 3g speed so as in field of marketing field also. From traditional way to online way of marketing. In this world of advance technology people are moving so fast they hardly have time to go for traditional marketing. There are few points to show that how online marketing is different and effective from traditional.

Strategy is the main word in marketing by which we can take business to great success and now success can be measured.

Reason 1:-  You can save your money.

The main purpose of any business is to make money and money is life of business without money business cant be run effectively. 
Earlier marketers used to advertise their ads on papers and they used to spend lot of money for small ads on paper which could go into lakhs also at times. But due to online marketing that money is saved to a extent by making website or blogsite.

Reason 2 :- You can connect directly with your customers
As we are aware that many of brands are moving into social media to have direct access to customer and know about their product.
Customers now express their views on social media sites and brand marketing team can have track on them and work on it as it is require.

Reason 3:- Online marketing is measureable.

After you do any advertisement on paper you cannot track that how many of them actually saw your ads. In online marketing you can track each and everything and at times you can pay it accordingly.
There are many free websites which can give you information about your website and your traffic control and with timings and country.

Reason 4:- You can add videos

In traditional marketing video and paper hardly go in hand in hand but in online marketing both can go with same time and you can actually use many videos where you don’t have to pay as much you pay on TV. Here you can change your video as many times you want and you can measure also and spend accordingly to target customers.


Its surprising that not many know about the tapering and the current issues involved with it. With this article i aim to share my knowledge with the readers as it is  the issue which should be known.
The 2008 crisis is not unknown to anyone. US economy was the worst hit with all time low employment and growth rates of the economy. There was deflationary pressure too. So to overcome all this Fed introduced its bond buying program. But now as the economy is recovering fed has decided to taper its bond buying program i.e to cut down or shorten the easing.  At first it may seem just as a normal event occurring in US which is related to FED. But a closer inspection will reveal it’s more than what meets the eye. India gets affected directly as well as indirectly.  Not only India but emerging economies such as China, Brazil, and South Africa and European nations get affected by it too.
The Fed, or any central bank for that matter, enacts quantitative easing by creating money and then buying bonds or other financial assets from banks. The banks then will have more cash available to loan. Higher loan growth, in turn, should make it easier to finance projects – for example, the construction of a new office building.
“Tapering” is a term that exploded into the financial lexicon on May 22, when U.S. Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke stated in testimony before Congress that that Fed may taper - or reduce - the size of the bond-buying program known as quantitative easing (QE). 

On December 18, 2013, the Fed announced the first tapering: beginning in January, it will reduce its purchases to $75 billion per month - $35 billion of mortgage-backed securities and $40 billion of Treasuries. The Fed is on track to reduce the program steadily throughout 2014 as long as economic growth remains on track and unemployment continues to fall.

The emerging markets suffered from the downfall initially while the stock markets crashing and rupee weakening against dollar at a historic rate of 68.85 in August 2013.
But now India is well prepared to fight the consequences and also its at a better position. Indian economy is doing relatively well than in June when the early signs of tapering were shown. Indian markets have already factored the tapering so an adverse effect will not be seen unless there are some other developments too.



The Indian Textiles Industry is traditionally, after Agriculture Industry, It is the only industry that has generated huge numbers of employment for both skilled and unskilled labours. The Textile industry continues to be the second largest employment generating sector in India. It offers direct employment to around  35 million in the country.  It contributes more than 4% to the GDP. It contributes 17% to the country’s export earning..
India is the second largest producers of fibres in the world and the major fibre produced is cotton. Other fibres produced in India include silk, jute, wool, and man-made fibers. 60% of the Indian textile Industry is cotton based.
·         Man Made Fibers: These includes manufacturing of clothes using fiber or filament synthetic yarns. It is produced in the large power loom factories. They account for the largest sector of the textile production in India.This sector has a share of 62% of the India's total production and provides employment to about 4.8 million people
·         The Cotton Sector: It is the second most developed sector in the Indian Textile industries. It provides employment to huge amount of people but its productions and employment is seasonal depending upon the seasonal nature of the production.
·         The Handloom Sector: It is well developed and is mainly dependent on the SHGs for their funds. Its market share is 13%.of the total cloth produced in India.
·         The Woolen Sector: India is the 7th largest producer of the wool in the world. India also produces 1.8% of the world's total wool.
·         The Jute Sector: The jute or the golden fiber in India is mainly produced in the Eastern states of India like Assam and West Bengal. India is the largest producer of jute in the world.
·         The Sericulture and Silk Sector: India is the 2nd largest producer of silk in the world. India produces 18% of the world's total silk. Mulberry, Eri, Tasar, and Muga are the main types of silk produced in the country. It is a labor-intensive sector.

There is large scope of improvement in the textile industry of India as there is a huge increase in personal disposable income among the Indians after the 1991 liberalisation. There is also a large growth of the organised sector in the Indian textile industries. The foreign brands along with the collaboration of the Indian companies established business in India. Some of these are Puma, Armani, Benetton, Esprit, Levi Strauss etc.
The major Indian Industries include Bombay Dyeing, Arvind Mills , Fabindia, Grasim Industries, JCT Limited, Wardhman textiles , Reliance Textiles, Lakshmi Mills, Mysore Silk Factory. And Raymonds.


Linen  is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant, Linum usitatissimum . Linen is labor-intensive to manufacture, but when it is made into garments, it is valued for its exceptional coolness and freshness in hot weather.
The word "linen" is of West Germanic origin and cognates with the Latin name for the flax plant linum. This word history has given rise to a number of other terms in English, the most notable of which is the English word line, derived from the use of a linen (flax) thread to determine a straight line.
Textiles in a linen weave texture, even when made of cotton, hemp and other non-flax fibers are also loosely referred to as "linen". Such fabrics generally have their own specific names other than linen; for example, fine cotton yarn in a linen-style weave is called Madapolam.
The collective term "linens" is still often used generically to describe a class of woven and even knitted bed, bath, table and kitchen textiles. The name linens is retained because traditionally, linen was used for many of these items. In the past, the word "linens" was also used to mean lightweight undergarments such as shirts, chemises, waist shirts, lingerie (a word also cognate with linen) , and detachable shirt collars and cuffs, which were historically made almost exclusively out of  linen. The inside cloth layer of fine composite clothing garments was traditionally made of linen, and this is the origin of the word lining.
Linen textiles appear to be some of the oldest in the world: their history goes back many thousands of years. Fragments of straw, seeds, fibers, yarns, and various types of fabrics which date back to about 8000 BC have been found in Swiss lake dwellings. Dyed flax fibers found in a prehistoric cave in Georgia suggest the use of woven linen fabrics from wild flax may date back even earlier to 36,000 BP.
Linen was sometimes used as currency in ancient Egypt. Egyptian mummies were wrapped in linen because it was seen as a symbol of light and purity, and as a display of wealth. Some of these fabrics, woven from hand spun yarns, were very fine for their day, but are coarse compared to modern linen. Today, linen is usually an expensive textile, and is produced in relatively small quantities. It has a long "staple" (individual fiber length) relative to cotton and other natural fibers.

Many products are made of linen: aprons, bags, towels (swimmers, bath,body and wash towels), bed linens, linen tablecloths, runners, chair covers, men's and women's wear.

Units of textile measurement

                   Units of textile measurement
Textile yarns are measured in various units, such as: the denier and tex (linear mass density of fibres), super S (fineness of wool fiber), worsted count, woolen count, cotton count (or Number English Ne), Number metric (Nm) and yield (the inverse of denier and tex). Yarn is spun thread used for knitting, weaving, or sewing. Thread is a long, thin strand of cotton, nylon, or other fibers used in sewing or weaving. Both yarn and thread are measured in terms of cotton count and yarn density. 


Denier or den is a unit of measure for the linear mass density of fibers. It is defined as the mass in grams per 9000 meters. The denier is based on a natural reference—i.e., a single strand of silk is approximately one denier. A 9000-meter strand of silk weighs about one gram. The term denier comes from the French denier, a coin of small value (worth 112 of a sou). Applied to yarn, a denier was held to be equal in weight to 124 of an ounce. The term microdenier is used to describe filaments that weigh less than one gram per 9000 meters.
The International System of Units uses the unit kilogram per metre for linear densities; in some contexts the unit "tex" is used instead.
The following relationship applies to straight, uniform filaments:
DPF = total denier / quantity of uniform filaments
The denier system of measurement is used on two- and single-filament fibers. Some common calculations are as follows:
1 denier
= 1 gram per 9 000 meters
= 0.111 milligrams per meter
In practice, measuring 9000 meters is both time-consuming and unrealistic; generally a sample of 900 meters is weighed and the result multiplied by 10 to obtain the denier weight.


Tex is a unit of measure for the linear mass density of fibers and is defined as the mass in grams per 1000 meters. Tex is more likely to be used in Canada and Continental Europe, while denier remains more common in the United States and United Kingdom. The unit code is "tex". The most commonly used unit is actually the decitex, abbreviated dtex, which is the mass in grams per 10,000 meters. When measuring objects that consist of multiple fibers the term "filament tex" is sometimes used, referring to the mass in grams per 1000 meters of a single filament.
Tex is used for measuring fiber size in many products, including cigarette filters, optical cable, yarn, and fabric.

S or super S number

S or super S number is an indirect measure of the fineness of the wool fiber. It is most commonly seen as a label on wool suits and other tailored wool apparel to indicate the fineness of the wool fiber used in the making of the apparel. The numbers may also be found on wool fabric and yarn.

Worsted count

Worsted count (or spinning count) is an indirect measure of the fineness of the fiber in a worsted wool yarn expressed as the number of 560-yard [3] (1 yard = 0.9144 meters) lengths (hanks) of worsted yarn that a pound (0.45359237 kilograms) of wool yields. The finer the wool, the more yarn and the higher the count. It has been largely replaced by direct measures.


Similar to tex and denier, yield is a term that helps describe the linear density of a roving of fibers. However, unlike tex and denier, yield is the inverse of linear density and is usually expressed in yards/lb.

Yarn and thread

Cotton count

·        Cotton count is another measure of linear density. It is the number of hanks (840 yd or 770 m) of skein material that weigh 1 pound (0.45 kg). Under this system, the higher the number, the finer the yarn. In the United States cotton counts between 1 and 20 are referred to as coarse counts. A regular single-knit T-shirt can be between 20 and 40 count; fine bed sheets are usually in the range of 40 to 80 count. The number is now widely used in the staple fiber industry.
·        Hank: a length of 7 leas or 840 yards (770 m)
One lea – 120 yards (110 m)

Thread count

Thread count or threads per inch (TPI) is a measure of the coarseness or fineness of fabric. It is measured by counting the number of threads contained in one square inch of fabric or one square centimeter, including both the length (warp) and width (weft) threads. The thread count is the number of threads counted along two sides (up and across) of the square inch, added together. It is used especially in regard to cotton linens such as bed sheets, and has been known to be used in the classification of towels.
Thread count is often used as a measure of fabric quality, so that "standard" cotton thread counts are around 150 while good-quality sheets start at 180 and a count of 200 or higher is considered percale.

Ends per inch[edit]

Ends per inch (EPI or e.p.i.) is the number of warp threads per inch of woven fabric.In general, the higher the ends per inch, the finer the fabric is. The current fashion is to wear t-shirts with a higher thread count, such as soft and comfortable "30 single" tee shirt that has 30 threads per inch as contrasted to the standard t-shirt with an 18 thread count per inch.
Ends per inch is very commonly used by weavers who must use the number of ends per inch in order to pick the right reed to weave with. The number of ends per inch varies on the pattern to be woven and the thickness of the thread. Plain weaves generally use half the number of wraps per inch for the number of ends per inch, whereas denser weaves like a twill weave will use a higher ratio like two thirds of the number of wraps per inch. Finer threads require more threads per inch than thick ones, and thus result in a higher number of ends per inch.
The number of ends per inch in a piece of woven cloth varies depending on what stage the cloth is at. Before the cloth is woven the warp has a certain number of ends per inch, which is directly related to what size reed is being used. After weaving the number of ends per inch will increase, and it will increase again after being washed. This increase in the number of ends per inch (and picks per inch) and shrinkage in the size of the fabric is known as the take-up. The take-up is dependent on many factors, including the material and how tightly the cloth is woven. Tightly woven fabric shrinks more (and thus the number of ends per inch increases more) than loosely woven fabric, as do more elastic yarns and fibers.


v  Picks per inch (or p.p.i.) is the number of weft threads per inch of woven fabric. A pick is a single weft thread,hence the term. In general, the higher the picks per inch, the finer the fabric is.