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31 January 2014
Units of textile measurement
Textileyarns are measured in various units, such as: the denier and tex (linear
mass density of fibres), super S (fineness of wool fiber), worsted count,
woolen count, cotton count (or Number English Ne), Number metric (Nm) and yield
(the inverse of denier and tex). Yarn is spun thread used for knitting,
weaving, or sewing. Thread is a long, thin strand of cotton, nylon, or other
fibers used in sewing or weaving. Both yarn and thread are measured in terms of
cotton count and yarn density.
Denierordenis a unit of measure for thelinear mass densityoffibers. It is
defined as themassingramsper 9000meters.The denier is based on a natural
reference—i.e., a single strand of silk is approximately one denier. A
9000-meter strand of silk weighs about one gram. The term denier comes from theFrench
denier, a coin of small value (worth1⁄12of
Applied toyarn, a
denier was held to be equal in weight to1⁄24of
an ounce. The termmicrodenieris used to describe filaments that
weigh less than one gram per 9000 meters.
The following relationship
applies to straight, uniform filaments:
DPF = total denier /
quantity of uniform filaments
The denier system of measurement
is used on two- and single-filament fibers. Some common calculations are as
= 1 gram per 9 000 meters
= 0.111 milligrams per meter
In practice, measuring 9000
meters is both time-consuming and unrealistic; generally a sample of 900 meters
is weighed and the result multiplied by 10 to obtain the denier weight.
Texis a unit of measure for the linear mass
density of fibers and is defined as the mass in grams per 1000 meters. Tex is
more likely to be used in Canada andContinental Europe, while denier remains more
common in the United States and United Kingdom. The unit code is
"tex". The most commonly used unit is actually the decitex, abbreviateddtex, which is the mass in
grams per 10,000 meters. When measuring objects that consist of multiple fibers
the term "filament tex" is sometimes used, referring to the mass in
grams per 1000 meters of a single filament.
Tex is used for measuring fiber
size in many products, including cigarette filters, optical cable, yarn, and
super S number
S or super S numberis an
indirect measure of the fineness of the wool fiber. It is most commonly seen as
a label on wool suits and other tailored wool apparel to indicate the fineness
of the wool fiber used in the making of the apparel. The numbers may also be
found on wool fabric and yarn.
Worsted count (orspinning
count) is an indirect measure of the fineness of the fiber in aworstedwool yarn expressed as the number of 560-yard(1 yard = 0.9144 meters) lengths (hanks) of
worsted yarn that a pound (0.45359237 kilograms) of wool yields. The finer the
wool, the more yarn and the higher the count. It has been largely replaced by
Similar to tex and denier,yieldis a term that helps describe thelinear
densityof arovingof fibers. However, unlike tex and denier,
yield is the inverse oflinear
usually expressed in yards/lb.
Yarn and thread
·Cotton count is another measure of linear density. It is the
number of hanks (840 yd or 770 m) of skein material that weigh 1
pound (0.45 kg). Under this system, the higher the number, the finer the
yarn. In the United States cotton counts between 1 and 20 are referred to as
coarse counts. A regular single-knit T-shirt can be between 20 and 40 count;
fine bed sheets are usually in the range of 40 to 80 count. The number is now
widely used in the staple fiber industry.
·Hank: a length of 7 leas or 840 yards (770 m)
One lea – 120 yards (110 m)
per inch(TPI)is a measure of the coarseness or fineness of
fabric. It is measured by counting the number of threads contained in one
square inch of fabric or one square centimeter, including both the length (warp) and
threads. The thread count is the number of threads counted along two sides (up
and across) of the square inch, added together.It is used especially in regard to cottonlinenssuch asbed
sheets, and has been known to be used in the classification of towels.
Thread count is often used as a
measure of fabric quality, so that "standard" cotton thread counts
are around 150 while good-quality sheets start at 180 and a count of 200 or
higher is consideredpercale.
Ends per inch(EPI or e.p.i.) is the number ofwarpthreads per inch of woven fabric.In general, the higher the ends per inch, the
finer the fabric is. The current fashion is to wear t-shirts with a higher
thread count, such as soft and comfortable "30 single" tee shirt that
has 30 threads per inch as contrasted to the standard t-shirt with an 18 thread
count per inch.
Ends per inch is very commonly
used by weavers who must use the number of ends per inch in order to pick the
rightreedtoweavewith. The number of ends per inch varies on
the pattern to be woven and the thickness of the thread.Plain
use half the number of wraps per inch for the number of ends per inch, whereas
denser weaves like a twill weave will use a higher ratio like two thirds of the
number of wraps per inch. Finer threads require more threads per inch than
thick ones, and thus result in a higher number of ends per inch.
The number of ends per inch in a
piece of woven cloth varies depending on what stage the cloth is at. Before the
cloth is woven the warp has a certain number of ends per inch, which is
directly related to what sizereedis being used. After weaving the number of
ends per inch will increase, and it will increase again after being washed.
This increase in the number of ends per inch (and picks per inch) andshrinkagein the
size of the fabric is known as thetake-up.
The take-up is dependent on many factors, including the material and how
tightly the cloth is woven. Tightly woven fabric shrinks more (and thus the
number of ends per inch increases more) than loosely woven fabric, as do more
elastic yarns and fibers.
vPicks per inch(or p.p.i.) is the number ofweftthreads per inch of woven fabric.A pick is a single weft thread,hence the term. In general, the higher the
picks per inch, the finer the fabric is.