31 March 2014

What do you mean by job work trends?

There are loads of human resource technicalities that the common man is unaware of. Job work trend is one of those words that many do not understand quickly and easily. Hence,  let us get an insight into the actual meaning of job work trends:

Job Work trends are the trend in respect to the increase or decrease of percentage workers in a particular sector around the world. Another meaning for Job Market trends is the trend that a particular country is following in respect to the type and nature of jobs available to the natives of that country. It is usually a prediction that is made so as to calculate the number of people expected to either leave or a join a particular industry in one financial year.


Job Trends are graphically enumerated by line graphs for easy understanding, so as to study the current trend or the trends from the past the fastest possible time.

Hope that now you understand the meaning of job work trends!

Emergence of Eye Hospital in India

The incredible gift of vision imparted via eyes is indeed a benison in disguise, so when issues related to eye problems arise, it being one of the most vital organs of our body deserves utmost attention.
Just a few decades back Eye hospital did not exist as a separate entity but formed a small segment of multi-specialty Hospitals instead. Now there has been a paradigm shift in this as number of eye hospital have shown a steep rise. The reason behind this changed scenario can be attributed to various factors such as people becoming more aware of the necessity to attend to eye problems on time, advancement in biomedical technologies related to eye etc.

Most of the Eye hospital in mumbai are equipped with a Standard set up required for treatment of various eye related diseases and disorders. For ease of operation further classifications are also done in the hospital based on the specific area which is affected. For instance eye clinics can be further sub divided in to Glaucoma clinic, Retina clinic ,Pediatric Ophthalmology ,Neuro- Ophthalmology ,Vision Rehabilitation services, Oculoplasty , Cataract etc.

 Many problems related to eyes arising either due to negligence , injury ,allergy or any other complexities are taken care of in such hospitals .Disorders related to various parts of the eye such as that of eyelid ,sclera ,cornea ,retina ,iris ciliary body etc are treated here using state of art technologies. Various high end instruments are used for diagnostic, therapeutic, sterilization and other purposes. Instruments such as OCT, Auto-Perimeter, Applanation Ton meter, ERG, VEP ,Prism, Keratometer etc are used for pliliminary diagnostic purposes. Diode Laser, Interlace, Synoptophore etc are used for therapeutic purposes and Statim etc are used for sterilization purposes.

 All this reliable technology related to eye care is available in India in a comparatively low cost. This is the reason for which people from abroad too prefer India for various eye treatments. Besides this, Eye checkup sections and correction through laser facility also form an integral part of these hospitals .Lasik surgery in India are those that make use of lasers for treating problems like Myopia, Hyperopia , Astigmatism etc. There are quite a few unfortunate people too who are deprived of vision. They are blind either right from birth or lose eye sight due to some accident, disease etc. Eye donation centers which are a part of these hospitals and which cater to the requirement of eye transplants can be a ray of hope for such people. Here by adept removal, storage and transplant of donated eyes, the process of imparting vision to the needed is carried out in an adroit manner. Few such hospitals also undertake events such as awareness drives regarding eye donations wherein they reach to the masses and explain them the clutter free procedure of eye donation and it's benefits. They also set up free eye check up camps etc. All these humanitarian acts can be considered as benevolent ways in which these organizations pay back to the society.


Waltz

WALTZ            
http://www.reggie.net/photos/dancing/suda-2009-crawley/090214-204725-3870-pauliina-stephen-waltz-suda-2009-600.jpg
The waltz is a smooth, progressive ballroom and folk dance, performed primarily in closed position.
There are several references to a sliding or gliding dance—a waltz—from the 16th century, including the representations of the printer H.S. Beheim. The French philosopher Montaigne wrote of a dance he saw in 1580 in Augsburg, where the dancers held each other so closely that their faces touched. Kunz Haas (of approximately the same period) wrote, "Now they are dancing the godless Weller or Spinner." "The vigorous peasant dancer, following an instinctive knowledge of the weight of fall, utilizes his surplus energy to press all his strength into the proper beat of the measure, thus intensifying his personal enjoyment in dancing."
In the 19th and early 20th century, numerous different waltz forms existed, including versions performed in 3/4 or 6/8 (sauteuse), and 5/4 time (5/4 waltz, half and half)
In the 1910s, a form called the "Hesitation Waltz" was introduced by Vernon and Irene Castle.[13] It incorporated "hesitatiZons" and was danced to fast music. A hesitation is basically a halt on the standing foot during the full waltz measure, with the moving foot suspended in the air or slowly dragged. Similar figures (Hesitation Change, Drag Hesitation, and Cross Hesitation) are incorporated in the International Standard Waltz Syllabus.
The Country Western Waltz is mostly progressive, moving counter clock wise around the dance floor. Both the posture and frame are relaxed, with posture bordering on a slouch. The exaggerated hand and arm gestures of some ballroom styles are not part of this style. Couples may frequently dance in the promenade position, depending on local preferences. Within Country Western waltz, there is the Spanish Waltz and the more modern (for the late 1930s- early 1950s) Pursuit Waltz. At one time it was considered ill treatment for a man to make the woman walk backwards in some locations.
In California the waltz was banned by Mission fathers until after 1834 because of the "closed" dance position. Thereafter a Spanish Waltz was danced. This Spanish Waltz was a combination of dancing around the room in closed position, and a "formation" dance of two couples facing each other and performing a sequence of steps. "Valse a Trois Temps" was the "earliest" waltz step, and the Rye Waltz was favored as a couple dance.
In contemporary ballroom dance, the fast versions of the waltz are called Viennese Waltz.
In traditional Irish music, the waltz was taught by traveling dancing masters to those who could afford their lessons during the 19th century. By the end of that century, the dance spread to the middle and lower classes of Irish society and traditional triple-tune tunes and songs were altered to fit the waltz rhythm. During the 20th century, the waltz found a distinctively Irish playing style in the hands of Céilidh musicians at dances.
International Standard Waltz has only closed figures; that is, the couple never breaks the embrace.
The American Style Waltz, part of the American Smooth ballroom dance syllabus, in contrast to the International Standard Waltz, involves breaking contact almost entirely in some figures. For example, the Syncopated Side-by-Side with Spin includes a free spin for both partners. Open rolls are another good example of an open dance figure, in which the follower alternates between the lead's left and right sides, with the lead's left or right arm (alone) providing the lead. Waltzes were the staple of many American musicals and films, including "Waltz in Swing Time" sung by Fred Astaire.
The Scandinavian Waltz, performed as a part of Scandinavian folk dance, can be fast or slow, but the dancers are always rotating.
The Peruvian Waltz is called and recognized in Peru as vals criollo.
The Cajun Waltz is danced progressively around the floor, and is characterized by the subtle swaying of the hips and step very close to ordinary walking. It is danced entirely in the closed position.
The Cuban (or Tropical) Waltz follows the pattern of the standard waltz throughout the song.
The Venezuelan waltz provided a basis for distinctive regional musical composition.
The Contra Waltz (Freeform Waltz), included in most contra dance evenings, uses both open and closed positions, and incorporates moves from other dances such as swing, modern jive and salsa. Basically the dancers progress around the dance floor with a waltz step, but with no constraints on what moves they can use.
The Valse Musette, a form of waltz popular in France, started in the late 19th century.

The cross-step waltz (French Valse Boston) developed in France in the early 20th century and is popular in social waltz groups today.

Recruitment and Selection

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, selecting, and on boarding a qualified person for a job. The stages of the recruitment process include: job analysis and developing some person specification; the sourcing of candidates by networking, advertising, and other search methods; matching candidates to job requirements and screening individuals using testing (skills or personality assessment); assessment of candidates' motivations and their fit with organizational requirements by interviewing and other assessment techniques. The recruitment process also includes the making and finalizing of job offers and the induction and on boarding of new employees.
Depending on the size and practices of the organization, recruitment may be undertaken in-house by managers, human resource generalists and/or recruitment specialists. Alternatively, parts of the process may be undertaken by either public-sector employment agencies, commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies.
PROCESS
Job analysis:
In situations where multiple new jobs are created and recruited for the first time, a job analysis might be undertaken to document the knowledge, skill, ability, and other personal characteristics (KSAOs) required for the job. From these the relevant information is captured in such documents as job descriptions and job specifications. Often a company will already have job descriptions that represent a historical collection of tasks performed. Where already drawn up, these documents need to be reviewed or updated to reflect present day requirements. Prior to initiating the recruitment stages a person specification should be finalized to provide the recruiters commissioned with the requirements and objectives of the project.
Sourcing:
Sourcing is the use of one or more strategies to attract or identify candidates to fill job vacancies. It may involve internal and/or external advertising, using appropriate media, such as local or national newspapers, specialist recruitment media, professional publications, window advertisements, job centres, or in a variety of ways via the internet. Alternatively, employers may use recruitment consultancies or agencies to find otherwise scarce candidates who may be content in their current positions and are not actively looking to move companies. This initial research for so-called passive candidates, also called name generation, results in a contact information of potential candidates who can then be contacted discreetly to be screened and approached.
Screening and selection:
Suitability for a job is typically assessed by looking for (KSAOs) that are required for a job. These can be determined via: screening résumés (also known as curriculum vita or CV); job application; Biographical Information Blanks which is an assessment that asks for a more extensive background than an application; or interviews. Various psychological can be used to assess to assess a variety of KSAOs, including literacy. Assessment are available to measure physical. Many recruiters and agencies use applicant tracking systems to perform the filtering process, along with software tools for psychometric testing and performance based assessment. Performance based assessment is a process to find out if job applicants perform the responsibilities for which they are applying. In many countries, employers are legally mandated to ensure their screening and selection processes meet equal opportunity and ethical standards.
In addition to the above selection assessment criteria, employers are likely to recognize the value of candidates who encompass "soft skills" such as interpersonal or team leadership, and have the ability to reinforce the company brand through behaviour and attitude portrayal to customers and suppliers. Multinational organizations and those that recruit from a range of nationalities are also concerned candidates will fit into the prevailing company culture.


A British Armed Forces recruitment centre in Oxford.
Lateral hiring:

"Lateral hiring" refers to the hiring of someone into a position that is at the same organizational level or salary. It could mean hiring someone from another, similar organization, possibly luring them with a better salary and the promise of better career opportunities. An example is the recruiting of a partner of a law firm by another law firm. A lateral hire may also refer to an employee moving from one position to another within the same organization.

Fashion Designing

FASHION DESIGNING


Fashion Designing is the art of applying design and taste to create fashionable, trendy clothing. Fashion designers are most influenced by their culture. Some fashion designers work individually or in a team. The main goal of a fashion designer is to keep up with the styles and make their clothing appeal to consumers.
Fashion Designers have many duties such as: Researching, sketching, choosing materials, looking at retail samples, and marketing. Before staring the designing process, the designers have to research current and future trends. After the designers find the trends, they come up with ideas and start sketching. They either sketch on paper or they use some type of designing software on a computer. They designers then go to fabric companies and decide on what kind of material and patterns they want. The designers then have seamstresses make a sample of the design from the fabric they chose. Lastly they designers show or market their designs at a fashion show. That’s where the retailers order what they want to have in their store.
Students that want to become fashion designers have to complete basic art and design classes before they can enroll in a fashion design program. They usually have to submit a portfolio that shows their artistic ability. Usually they also have to submit their high school transcript and recommendation letters. Designers usually need a two year associate or four year bachelor’s degree in fashion design. Classes that should be taken for this career are: Pattern Making, Fashion History, Fashion Merchandising, Color, Fabrics and Textiles, Phycology, Human Anatomy, and Math. Students should learn about sewing, tailoring, and drawing designs.
Fashion Designers usually work long hours in well-lighted and comfortable places. Freelance designers usually work by the job and they tend to work longer in small environments.

Chess

CHESS
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered game board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world's most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide in homes, parks, clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.
Each player begins the game with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently. Pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, with the objective to 'checkmate' the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by the voluntary resignation of the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may also result in a draw in several ways, where neither player wins. The course of the game is divided into three phases: opening, middle game, and endgame.
The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion is Norwegian chess Grandmaster Magnus Carlsen. In addition to the World Championship, there are the Women's World Championship, the Junior World Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Correspondence Chess World Championship, the World Computer Chess Championship, and Blitz and Rapid World Championships. The Chess Olympiad is a popular competition among teams from different nations. Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Chess is a recognized sport of the International Olympic Committee and international chess competition is sanctioned by the World Chess Federation (FIDE), which adopted the now-standard Staunton chess set in 1924 for use in all official games. There are also many chess variants, with different rules, different pieces, and different boards.

Since the second half of the 20th century, computers have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest home computers play chess at a higher level than the best human players. In the past two decades computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame. The computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997.

Training and Development

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Human Resource Management, training and development is the field which is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including human resource development, and learning and development.
Harrison observes that the name was endlessly debated by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development during its review of professional standards in 1999/2000. "Employee Development" was seen as too evocative of the master-slave relationship between employer and employee for those who refer to their employees as "partners" or "associates" to feel comfortable with. "Human Resource Development" was rejected by academics, who objected to the idea that people were "resources" &m dash; an idea that they felt to be demeaning to the individual. Eventually, the CIPD settled upon "Learning and Development", although that was itself not free from problems, "learning" being an overgeneral and ambiguous name. Moreover, the field is still widely known by the other names.
Training and development (T&D) encompasses three main activities: training, education, and development. Garavan, Costine, and Heraty, of the International Institute of Market Research and Analytics, note that these ideas are often considered to be synonymous. However, to practitioners, they encompass three separate, although interrelated, activities:
Training: This activity is both focused upon, and evaluated against, the job that an individual currently holds.
Education: This activity focuses upon the jobs that an individual may potentially hold in the future, and is evaluated against those jobs.
pic from this site. http://www.tv-consultants.com/train.html

Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate.
The "stakeholders" in training and development are categorized into several classes. The sponsors of training and development are senior managers. The clients of training and development are business planners. Line managers are responsible for coaching, resources, and performance. The participants are those who actually undergo the processes. The facilitators are Human Resource Management staff. And the providers are specialists in the field. Each of these groups has its own agenda and motivations, which sometimes conflict with the agendas and motivations of the others.

The conflicts that are the best part of career consequences are those that take place between employees and their bosses. The number one reason people leave their jobs is conflict with their bosses. And yet, as author, workplace relationship authority, and executive coach, Dr John Hoover points out, "Tempting as it is, nobody ever enhanced his or her career by making the boss look stupid."Training an employee to get along well with authority and with people who entertain diverse points of view is one of the best guarantees of long-term success. Talent, knowledge, and skill alone won't compensate for a sour relationship with a superior, peer, or customer.

The Bermuda Triangle

THE BERMUDA TRIANGLEhttp://www.neatorama.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/triangle.jpg
The Bermuda Triangle, also known as the Devil's Triangle, is a loosely defined region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean, where a number of aircraft and ships are said to have disappeared under mysterious circumstances. According to the US Navy, the triangle does not exist, and the name is not recognized by the US Board on Geographic Names. Popular culture has attributed various disappearances to the paranormal or activity by extra terrestrial beings. Documented evidence indicates that a significant percentage of the incidents were spurious, inaccurately reported, or embellished by later authors. In a 2013 study, the World Wide Fund for Nature identified the world’s 10 most dangerous waters for shipping, but the Bermuda Triangle was not among them.
The first written boundaries date from an article by Vincent Gaddis in a 1964 issue of the pulp magazine Argosy, where the triangle's three vertices are in Miami, Florida peninsula; in San Juan, Puerto Rico; and in the mid-Atlantic island of Bermuda. But subsequent writers did not follow this definition. Some writers give different boundaries and vertices to the triangle, with the total area varying from 1,300,000 km2 (500,000 sq mi) to 3,900,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi).Consequently, the determination of which accidents have occurred inside the triangle depends on which writer reports them. The United States Board on Geographic Names does not recognize this name, and it is not delimited in any map drawn by US government agencies.
The area is one of the most heavily travelled shipping lanes in the world, with ships crossing through it daily for ports in the Americas, Europe, and the Caribbean Islands. Cruise ships are also plentiful, and pleasure craft regularly go back and forth between Florida and the islands. It is also a heavily flown route for commercial and private aircraft heading towards Florida, the Caribbean, and South America from points north. Tropical cyclones are powerful storms, which form in tropical waters and have historically cost thousands of lives lost and caused billions of dollars in damage. The sinking of Francisco de Bobadilla's Spanish fleet in 1502 was the first recorded instance of a destructive hurricane. These storms have in the past caused a number of incidents related to the Triangle.
A powerful downdraft of cold air was suspected to be a cause in the sinking of the Pride of Baltimore on May 14, 1986. The crew of the sunken vessel noted the wind suddenly shifted and increased velocity from 32 km/h (20 mph) to 97–145 km/h (60–90 mph). A National Hurricane Center satellite specialist, James Lushine, stated "during very unstable weather conditions the downburst of cold air from aloft can hit the surface like a bomb, exploding outward like a giant squall line of wind and water."[33] A similar event occurred to the Concordia in 2010 off the coast of Brazil.


Bureacracy

BUREAUCRACY

In contemporary India, the socialisation of administrators in the family, the university and the organisation tends to make them psychopathic. The public bureaucracy provides support to the ruling class, politically as well as economically: its expansion helps to create effective demand for durable consumer goods produced by the monopoly and oligopoly sector. The bureaucratisation of education results in universities which are hollow shells, without the kernel of scholarship. They only help to maintain and legitimise the existing order, not to induce change. Industrial organisations also do not support research and development; they deepen national dependency. Bureaucratisation mainly fulfils private interests through the exploitation of the vast majority.

According to Encyclopedia of Britannica "Bureaucracy is a body of professional, full time officials employed in the civil affairs of a state in non-political capacity".

In Indian context bureaucracy, who emphasized on maintenance of law and order and generation of revenue has failed to fulfill developmental functions.
It has generally been criticized as an authoritarian organization which emphasized on monopolization of power. It has also been criticized for its elitist background. It has been assumed that members of bureaucracy who are urbane in outlook cannot sympathize with problems of rural people.
. Indian bureaucracy has also been criticized for its lack of commitment to developmental needs and programs. While development calls for progressiveness and dynamism on the part of bureaucracy, bureaucracy always took shelter under conservative neutrality.
The first concrete effort to study the bureaucracy in a systematic manner was made by Max Weber, a German sociologist who was known father of “ideal type” of bureaucracy.
Weber mentioned three main features of bureaucracy i.e. Division of Labour and Specialization, Legal Frame Work, Principle of Hierarchy. But Max Weber’s model of bureaucracy which is highly rational and technical is not suitable to explain the administrative system and their working in developing countries who are engaged in new task of rural development
The present bureaucracy in these less developed nations has emerged from the British colonial system. After attaining political independence the scope of functions of government and bureaucracy have undergone a fundamental change
it has been observed that the ability of bureaucratic system to carry out planned programme of socio­economic development has been limited, partly due to lack of commitment to the ultimate goals of society and partly due to its inability to mobilize enough public support for development programmes .

References:
·         www.e-deliberation.com
·         en.wikipedia.org/wiki/bureaucracy

·         www.britannica.com

Apple

                  APPLE
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Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics computer software and personal computers. Its best-known hardware products are the Mac line of computers, the iPod media player, the I Phone smart phone and the I pad tablet computer. Its consumer software includes the OS X and I OS operating systems the iTunes media browser, the Safari web browser, and the I Life and I Work creativity and productivity suites. Apple is the world's second-largest information technology company by revenue after Samsung Electronics and the world's third-largest mobile phone maker after Samsung and Nokia.

·         MACBOOK AIR: Consumer ultra-thin, ultra-portable notebook, introduced in 2008.
·         MACBOOK PRO: Professional notebook, introduced in 2006.
·         MAC MINI: Consumer sub-desktop computer and server, introduced in 2005.
·         I MAC: Consumer all-in one desktop computer, introduced in 1998.
·         MAC PRO: Workstation desktop computer, introduced in 2006.
Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Macs, including thunderbolt display magic mouse ,magic trackpad wireless keyboard,  battery charger  the AirPort wireless networking products, and time capsule.
220px-MacBook_Air_black.jpg

On January 27, 2010, Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet, the I Pad, running a modified version of I OS. It offers multi-touch interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers, magazines e books textbooks photos movies videos of TV shows, music, word processing documents, spreadsheets, videogames, and most existing I Phone apps. It also includes a mobile version of Safari for web browsing, as well as access to the App Store, I Tunes Library, I Bookstore, contacts, and notepad. Content is downloadable via Wi-Fi and optional 3Gservice or synced through the user's computer. AT&T was initially the sole US provider of 3G wireless access for the I Pad. On March 2, 2011, Apple introduced the I Pad 2 which had a faster processor and a camera on the front and back. It also added support for optional 3G service provided by Verizon in addition to the existing offering by AT&T. On March 7, 2012, Apple introduced the third-generation I Pad. On October 23, 2012, Apple's fourth-generation I Pad came out.


Apple currently sells four variants of the iPod:

Sustainable Development

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sustainable development is an organizing principle for human life on a finite planet. It posits a desirable future state for human societies in which living conditions and resource-use meet human needs without undermining the sustainability of natural system and the environment, so that future generations may also have their needs met.

The domain of 'economics' is fundamental to considerations of sustainable development however there has been considerable criticism of the tendency to use the three-domain model of the triple bottom line: economics, environment and social. The sustainability of human settlements is part of the relationship between humans and their natural, social and built environments. Also termed human ecology, this broadens the focus of sustainable development to include the domain of human health. Working with a different emphasis, some researchers and institutions have pointed out that a fourth dimension should be added to the dimensions of sustainable development, since the triple-bottom-line dimensions of economic, environmental and social do not seem to be enough to reflect the complexity of contemporary society. The political is defined as the domain of practices and meanings associated with basic issues of social power as they pertain to the organization authorization legitimation and regulation of a social life held in common. This definition is in accord with the view that political change is important for responding to economic, ecological and cultural challenges.
220px-Circles_of_Sustainability_image_(assessment_-_Melbourne_2011).jpg

Environment sustainability is the process of making sure current processes of interaction with the environment are pursued with the idea of keeping the environment as pristine as naturally possible based on ideal-seeking behavior. Thus, environmental sustainability demands that society designs activities to meet human needs while indefinitely preserving the life support systems of the planet.



Consumption of renewable resources
State of environment
Sustainability

Jaguar

               JAGUAR     
           
The Swallow Sidecar Company was founded in 1922 by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and William Walmsley leading to SS Cars Ltd. In 1935 the SS Jaguar name first appeared on a 2.5-litre saloon sports models of which were the SS 90 and SS 100. Cash was short after World War II and Jaguar sold the plant and premises of Motor Panels, a pressed steel body manufacturing company they had acquired in the late 1930s when growth prospects seemed more secure. Jaguar made its name by producing a series of eye-catching sports cars such as the XK 120 of 1949, developed into XK 140 and XK 150, and the E Type of 1961. 
The F-Type convertible was launched at the 2012 Paris Motor Show following its display at the Goodwood Festival of Speed in June 2012 and is billed as a successor to the legendary E-Type. In fact, the Series III E-Type already had a successor, in the form of the XJS which was in turn replaced by the XK8 and XKR. The F-Type nevertheless returns to the 2-seat plan that was lost with the introduction of the Series III E-Type, which was available only in a 2+2-seat configuration. It was developed following the positive reaction to Jaguar's C-X16 concept car at the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show. Sales will begin in 2013 with three engine choices; two variants of the AJ126 V6 petrol engine and the AJ133 V8 petrol engine.

The Jaguar XF is a mid-size executive car introduced in 2008 to replace the S-Type In January 2008, the XF was awarded the What Car ‘Car of the Year' and 'Executive Car of the Year' awards. The XF was also awarded Car of the Year 2008 from What Diesel? Magazine Engines available in the XF are 2.2-litre I4 and 3.0-litre V6 diesel engines, or 3.0litre V6 and 5.0-litre V8 petrol engines. The 5.0Litre engine is available in supercharged form in the XFR. From 2011, the 2.2-litre diesel engine from the Land Rover Freelander was added to the range as part of a facelift.

The Jaguar XJ is a full-size luxury saloon. The model has been in production since 1968 with the first generation being the last Jaguar car to have creative input by the company's founder, Sir William Lyons  In early 2003, the third generation XJ arrived in showrooms and while the car's exterior and interior styling were traditional in appearance, the car was completely re-engineered. Its styling attracted much criticism from many motoring journalists who claimed that the car looked old-fashioned and barely more modern than its predecessor, many even citing that the 'Lyons line' had been lost in the translation from Mark 2 into Mark 3 XJ, even though beneath the shell lay a highly advanced aluminium construction that put the XJ very near the top of its class Jaguar responded to the criticism with the introduction of the fourth generation XJ, launched in 2009. Its exterior styling is a departure from previous XJs.

Jaguar began producing R models in 1995 with the introduction of the first XJR. Powered by a supercharged 6-cylinder engine, the car produced approximately 322 horsepower. With the revamped line of engines, the power plant would be based on an eight-cylinder engine with supercharger from 1997 to present. The 1997–2003 XJR produced 370 horsepower (276 kW) and 385 pound-feet (522 Nm) of torque, taking the car to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 5 seconds. The new aluminium body shell from 2004 to 2009 and increased power to 400 hp (298 kW) and enhanced computer systems decreased the time to 60 mph (97 km/h) to 4.8 seconds. Starting after year 2000, XJRs were equipped with Jaguar's CATS (Computer Active Technology Suspension), which helped firm up the ride in sporty driving without compromising comfort during day-to-day use.


The Jaguar S-Type first appeared in 1999 and stopped production in 2008. It has now been replaced by the Jaguar XF. Early S-Types suffered from reliability problems but those were mostly resolved by the 2004 model year. The Jaguar X-Type was a compact executive car launched in 2001, while the company was under Ford ownership. Sharing its platform with a 2000 Ford Mondeo X-Type ceased production in 2009.

Is bureaucracy dead?

The word "bureaucracy" comes from the French word for ‘desk’, a place where someone would keep important papers and rule proceedings. Today we relate to bureaucracy as an administrative system that is paralyzed by a set of rules and processes, separation of functions and a graded structure in applying controls over an organization. The organization we most relate to when we talk about bureaucracy is the government machinery.

So when asked “Is bureaucracy dead?” My answer in a nutshell is “No.” The study that follows is based on my personal opinions and observations on how tasks are completed both in the corporate world and in dealing with government organizations. Bureaucracy can either lubricate the machinery or throw a spanner in the works. Let’s see how:

Sizable administrative staff is most common in large organizations that require standardized rules, regulations and procedures or uniformity across a wide spectrum of business activities.

Even though some form of bureaucracy is essential for large professionally run organizations, there is much debate over whether the philosophy is ever demonstrated in practice. The term is often used in a judgmental way, since many bureaucracies have become too enormous to be efficient, and thus have become dysfunctional. Firms that are subject to heavy supervisory inspection require bureaucracy, as a loss of policy or oversight control could have calamitous consequences.

It is an extensively held belief that small companies can be more efficient and well-organized because they do not need large bureaucracies and therefore can adapt and innovate very quickly. Large bureaucracies are also associated with more mature companies in mature industries.

A question often raised is, “Is it viable to have both bureaucratic welfare state and a democracy that protects the liberties of individuals?” This is called the ‘bureaucracy-democracy paradox.’

Today our country is administered by a democratic form of government -  by the people, of the people and for the people. But in the common man in India feels like the government is democratic only in theory. And one of the biggest ironies in the country is the relationship between a bureaucracy and a democracy. They are meant to be absolutely independent of each other but still have an uncanny relationship.

It is believed that in a bureaucracy the left hand does not know that the right hand is doing and people are generally puzzled, frustrated and lost so as to what is happening. Isn’t that the exact feeling people currently have in India? Well, this statement justifies that even though on the outset we have a democracy; bureaucracy is what is actually calling the shots.

The Indian administrative department or government is stereotypically thought of as a body not indulging in any kind of governance. It is really seen as, limited to application in the purely instrumental sense. Its effort is viewed as carrying out the laws and policies passed down by elected and chosen officials or delivered by the regime as a whole.

According to imagemanagement.in the following steps should help improve the situation of the Indian bureaucracy in the eyes of the world:

1)      Work hard against thing including delaying approval for a bribe or porn during a parliament session; with more stringent guidelines and public vigilance so as to make sure these rules are being followed and obeyed by the general public, and the fact that a government position should not be treated as an autonomous job that is given to people for a lifetime.

2)      The proper use of social media so as to keep in touch with the public, give instant solutions to public questions instead of using it as medium of complaint and showing disgust. A peek into history tells us that the British were responsible for the birth of bureaucracy in India. It did so with the commencement of three organisations:
1)      The East India Company;
2)      The Crown and;
3)      Indian Republic.

Since those days bureaucracy has been embedded in the roots of India and the only way to get rid of it, is to slow and steadily slim and trim the bureaucracy.

As there are always two sides to a coin bureaucracy can have either a positive or a negative impact.
One positive impact: The positive aspect for example will be, bureaucratic regulations and rules help ensure appropriate precautions are taken to safeguard people. And the red tape documents in which the process is mentioned can be referred to if there are any problems that arise as the data exists for any kind of analysis and correction to be done.

One negative impact: Bureaucracy’s slow-down the process of getting things done on time, and secondly, bureaucracies and bureaucrats usually see themselves as the most important part of the government. Therefore, they tend to grow their own organization faster than any other part of the government or business.
This is typically what is happening in India and the current situation cannot be a better example.

In the current context of our country, India, in my opinion, bureaucracy definitely still exists. The reason is quite simple, India as a country was ruled for over 400 years, first by different provincial rulers and then for close to two centuries by the British. Being under the rule of someone else, Indians were never given the opportunity to take decisions on their own. A decision that is directly or indirectly involving them was taken by someone else. This in turn magnified rage and anger and slowly sowed the seed for revenge.

After becoming a so called ‘independent’ country, people with authority decided to start taking decisions for the common man keeping nothing but their self-interest in mind. This then became a way of life in all institutions whether private, public or governmental. People with power till date take decisions for all the rest, decisions that may or may not be beneficial for the nation or organisation as a whole, this is nothing but a corrupt bureaucracy.


Hence, bureaucracy is definitely alive and is standing in the way of India fulfilling its potential as nation!

DIAMOND - Its Features

            DIAMONDS
In mineralogy, diamond (from the ancient Greek αδάμας – adámas "unbreakable") is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at standard condition. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, most of which originate from the strong covalent bonding between its atoms. In particular, diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any bulk material. Those properties determine the major industrial application of diamond in cutting and polishing tools and the scientific applications in diamond knives and diamond anvil cells.
 The Gemological Institute of America, or GIA, is a nonprofit institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology and the jewelry arts. Founded in 1931, GIA's mission is to protect all  buyers and sellers of gemstones by setting and maintaining the standards used to evaluate gemstone quality. The institute does so through research, gem identification and diamond grading services and a variety of educational programs. Through its world-renowned library and subject experts, GIA acts as a resource of gem and jewelry information for the trade, the public and worldwide media outlets.
In 1953 the GIA developed its International Diamond Grading System and the Four Cs (cut, clarity, color, and carat weight) as a standard to compare and evaluate the quality of diamonds.
Today, the institute is headquartered in Carlsbad, California and operates out of 14 countries, with 12 campuses, seven laboratories and four research centers worldwide.


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Synthetic diamonds are diamonds manufactured in a laboratory, as opposed to diamonds mined from the Earth. The gemological and industrial uses of diamond have created a large demand for rough stones. This demand has been satisfied in large part by synthetic diamonds, which have been manufactured by various processes for more than half a century. However, in recent years it has become possible to produce gem-quality synthetic diamonds of significant size It is possible to make colorless synthetic gemstones that, on a molecular level, are identical to natural stones and so visually similar that only a gemologist with special equipment can tell the difference
The majority of commercially available synthetic diamonds are yellow and are produced by so-called High Pressure High Temperature processes.The yellow color is caused by nitrogen impurities. Other colors may also be reproduced such as blue, green or pink, which are a result of the addition of boron or from irradiation after synthesis.

Most diamonds are cut round with a full 58 facets, and a good cut, or make, has more scintillation, more sparkle. It is the work of a master cutter that allows the diamond to be cut in such a way as to permit the maximum amount of light to be reflected through the diamond, and that's a great reflection on you. It is the cut that enables a diamond to make the best use of light.
The most common diamond color is yellow. Most diamonds have a slight hint of yellow and the diamond color scale is based on the amount of yellow present in a diamond. Diamond color is graded according to the GIA Grading Scale. Grades are based on the amount of yellow that is visible when viewed facedown through the pavilion on a white diamond color card using daylight equivalent fluorescent light.
The diamond's clarity is a description of its internal purity. With fewer imperfections within the stone, the diamond is rare and has a higher value. The clarity scale was developed by the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) to quantify these imperfections. The American Gem Society (AGS) uses the same standards as the GIA; however, the AGS uses a numerical system where "0" is the cleanest (GIA "IF") and "10" is the most imperfect (GIA "I3").
A carat is a weight measuring unit equal to 0.2 grams. It is the internationally used unit to measure the weight of diamonds. Within the diamond trade, fractions of a carat are referred to as "points" or simply as fractions. A 50-point diamond weighs 0.5 carats or 1/2 a carat. A 1-carat diamond weighs 100 points. A 1/3 is also 0.3 carats or 30 points.