Good people can make any organization work but vagueness in organization is a good thing in that it forces teamwork. However, there can be no doubt that good people and those who want to cooperate will work together most effectively if they know the parts they are to play in any team operation and the way their roles relate to one another.Designing and maintaining these systems of roles is basically the managerial function of organizing.
Organizing is :
1) The identification and classification of required activities
2) The grouping of activities necessary to attain objectives
3) The assignment of each grouping to a manager(delegation) necessary to supervise it
4) The provision for coordination horizontally( on the same or a similar organizational level)and vertically( for example corporate headquarters,division, and department) in the organizational structure
Organization implies a formalized intentional structure of roles and positions.
Aspects of Organizing:
(a)Formal and Informal
(b)Span of Control
(c )Problems with levels in organization
(1) Levels are expensive
(2) Levels complicate communication
(3) Levels complicate planning and control
The principle of the span management states that there is a limit to the number of subordinates a manager can effectively supervise, but the exact number will depend on the impact of underlying factors
(d) Gracuinas’ formula:
C= n ( 2 + n-1 ) c= number of relationships
n= number of subordinates
(a) Richman’s case.
Factors which affect the span of control:
1. Amount of training
2. Clarity and delegation of authority
3. Clarity of plans and repetitiveness of operations
4. Verifiability of objectives
5. Changes in external and internal environments
6. Communications techniques
7. Interaction between superior and subordinates
8. Meetings effectiveness
9. Number of specialities at lower and middle levels
10. Competence and training of the manager
11. Complexity of the task
12. Subordinates’ willingness to assume responsibility
Job Design:Jobs are the building blocks of Organizational Structure. Job Design refers to the process by which managers determine individual job tasks and authority. Apart from issues of effectiveness in economic, political and monetary terms, job designs have social and psychological implications. Job can provide income,meaningful life experiences,self-esteem,esteem from others, regulation and patterns of work flow, and association with others.
Besides seeking the most efficient way to do a series of tasks there is the issue of Quality of Work Life which refers to a satisfaction of worker’s personal needs.
Job design and redesign techniques attempt
- To identify the most important needs of employees and the organization and
- To remove obstacles in the workplace that frustrate those needs.