Effective Managers are required in all types of organizations-big or small,manufacturing or service,profit-making or philantrophic. In fact, having talented people is so essential to the success of the organization expressed as “the ability to attract, develop and keep talented people.”
Managers have to have certain competencies for being effective.
“Competencies are a combination of knowledge, skills, behaviours, and attitudes that contribute to personal effectiveness.”
Managerial Competencies are sets of knowledge, skills, behaviours, and attitudes that a person needs to be effective in a wide range of positions and in various types of organizations.
There are six key managerial competencies:
- Planning and Administration
- Strategic Action
- Global Awareness
- Managerial functions are generally the same for first-line superiors, middle managers and top executives. Besides managers obtain the results by establishing an environment for effective and efficient performance of individuals working together in groups.
- Managerial knowledge is classified according to functions of Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading and Controlling .
- The Manager has to deal with the Internal and External Environment
Definition of Management
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims.
This definition when expanded means the following:
1.As managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling
2. Management applies to any kind of organization
3. It applies to managers at all levels
4. The aim of all managers is the same: to create a surplus
5. Managing is concerned with productivity; this implies efficiency and effectiveness
Efficiency is ‘doing things right’;that is ,it is a measure of how well resources are used to achieve results
Effectiveness is ‘doing the right things’;this is about selecting the right objectives to pursue in the first place
Managers should be both Efficient and Effective but effectiveness is the critical issue.
A manager’s most essential task is to see that everyone understands the group’s purposes and objectives and its methods of attaining them
Planning involves selecting missions and objectives and the actions to achieve them; that is choosing from among alternatives future courses of action.
Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to be.
Planning by its very nature consists of 4 major aspects:
- Its contribution to purpose and objectives
- Its primacy among the manager’s tasks
- Its pervasiveness
- The efficiency of resulting plans
Planning and controlling are very closely connected and are inseparable. A plan without controlling aspects included or controls without planning both are useless for the manager and serve no purpose.