31 March 2014
Recruitment and Selection
RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, selecting, and on boarding a qualified person for a job. The stages of the recruitment process include: job analysis and developing some person specification; the sourcing of candidates by networking, advertising, and other search methods; matching candidates to job requirements and screening individuals using testing (skills or personality assessment); assessment of candidates' motivations and their fit with organizational requirements by interviewing and other assessment techniques. The recruitment process also includes the making and finalizing of job offers and the induction and on boarding of new employees.
Depending on the size and practices of the organization, recruitment may be undertaken in-house by managers, human resource generalists and/or recruitment specialists. Alternatively, parts of the process may be undertaken by either public-sector employment agencies, commercial recruitment agencies, or specialist search consultancies.
In situations where multiple new jobs are created and recruited for the first time, a job analysis might be undertaken to document the knowledge, skill, ability, and other personal characteristics (KSAOs) required for the job. From these the relevant information is captured in such documents as job descriptions and job specifications. Often a company will already have job descriptions that represent a historical collection of tasks performed. Where already drawn up, these documents need to be reviewed or updated to reflect present day requirements. Prior to initiating the recruitment stages a person specification should be finalized to provide the recruiters commissioned with the requirements and objectives of the project.
Sourcing is the use of one or more strategies to attract or identify candidates to fill job vacancies. It may involve internal and/or external advertising, using appropriate media, such as local or national newspapers, specialist recruitment media, professional publications, window advertisements, job centres, or in a variety of ways via the internet. Alternatively, employers may use recruitment consultancies or agencies to find otherwise scarce candidates who may be content in their current positions and are not actively looking to move companies. This initial research for so-called passive candidates, also called name generation, results in a contact information of potential candidates who can then be contacted discreetly to be screened and approached.
Screening and selection:
Suitability for a job is typically assessed by looking for (KSAOs) that are required for a job. These can be determined via: screening résumés (also known as curriculum vita or CV); job application; Biographical Information Blanks which is an assessment that asks for a more extensive background than an application; or interviews. Various psychological can be used to assess to assess a variety of KSAOs, including literacy. Assessment are available to measure physical. Many recruiters and agencies use applicant tracking systems to perform the filtering process, along with software tools for psychometric testing and performance based assessment. Performance based assessment is a process to find out if job applicants perform the responsibilities for which they are applying. In many countries, employers are legally mandated to ensure their screening and selection processes meet equal opportunity and ethical standards.
In addition to the above selection assessment criteria, employers are likely to recognize the value of candidates who encompass "soft skills" such as interpersonal or team leadership, and have the ability to reinforce the company brand through behaviour and attitude portrayal to customers and suppliers. Multinational organizations and those that recruit from a range of nationalities are also concerned candidates will fit into the prevailing company culture.
A British Armed Forces recruitment centre in Oxford.
"Lateral hiring" refers to the hiring of someone into a position that is at the same organizational level or salary. It could mean hiring someone from another, similar organization, possibly luring them with a better salary and the promise of better career opportunities. An example is the recruiting of a partner of a law firm by another law firm. A lateral hire may also refer to an employee moving from one position to another within the same organization.