Securities market is an economic institute within which takes place the sale and purchase transactions of securities between subjects of the economy, on the basis of demand and supply. Also we can say that securities market is a system of interconnection between all participants (professional and nonprofessional) that provides effective conditions: to buy and sell securities, and also
· to attract new capital by means of issuance new security (securitization of debt),
· to transfer real asset into financial asset,
· to invest money for short or long term periods with the aim of deriving profitability.
· commercial function (to derive profit from operation on this market)
· price determination (demand and supply balancing, the continuous process of prices movements guarantees to state correct price for each security so the market corrects mispriced securities)
· informative function (market provides all participants with market information about participants and traded instruments)
· regulation function (securities market creates the rules of trade, contention regulation, priorities determination)
There are two types of securities market
The primary market is that part of the capital markets that deals with the issue of new securities. Companies, governments or public sector institutions can obtain funding through the sale of a new stock or bond issue. This is typically done through a syndicate of securities dealers. The process of selling new issues to investors is called underwriting. In the case of a new stock issue, this sale is a public offering. Dealers earn a commission that is built into the price of the security offering, though it can be found in the prospectus. Primary markets create long term instruments through which corporate entities borrow from capital market.
Features of primary markets are:
· This is the market for new long term equity capital. The primary market is the market where the securities are sold for the first time. Therefore it is also called the new issue market (NIM).
· In a primary issue, the securities are issued by the company directly to investors.
· The company receives the money and issues new security certificates to the investors.
· Primary issues are used by companies for the purpose of setting up new business or for expanding or modernizing the existing business.
· The primary market performs the crucial function of facilitating capital formation in the economy.
· The new issue market does not include certain other sources of new long term external finance, such as loans from financial institutions. Borrowers in the new issue market may be raising capital for converting private capital into public capital; this is known as "going public."
The secondary market, also known as the aftermarket, is the financial market where previously issued securities and financial instruments such as stock, bonds, options, and futures are bought and sold. The term "secondary market" is also used to refer to the market for any used goods or assets, or an alternative use for an existing product or asset where the customer base is the second market (for example, corn has been traditionally used primarily for food production and feedstock, but a "second" or "third" market has developed for use in ethanol production). Stock exchange and over the counter markets.
With primary issuances of securities or financial instruments, or the primary market, investors purchase these securities directly from issuers such as corporations issuing shares in an IPO or private placement, or directly from the federal government in the case of treasuries. After the initial issuance, investors can purchase from other investors in the secondary market.
The secondary market for a variety of assets can vary from loans to stocks, from fragmented to centralized, and from illiquid to very liquid. The major stock exchanges are the most visible example of liquid secondary markets - in this case, for stocks of publicly traded companies. Exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange, Nasdaq and the American Stock Exchange provide a centralized, liquid secondary market for the investors who own stocks that trade on those exchanges. Most bonds and structured products trade “over the counter,” or by phoning the bond desk of one’s broker-dealer. Loans sometimes trade online using a Loan Exchange.