Showing posts with label harshi doshi. Show all posts
Showing posts with label harshi doshi. Show all posts

29 March 2014

managerial leadership

Three aspects
LEADERSHIP-The idea or concept of leadership
LEADERS-the desired characteristics of effective leaders
LEADING-the successful practice of Leadership.

Leadership be Definitions of Leadership:
Dean Acheson “The successful resolution of problems”
Harry Truman “ Persuading people to do what they should have done
                          in the first place”
Tacitus           “ Reason and calm judgment “
Napoleon        “ Dealing in hope”
John Harvey Jones “Getting extraordinary performance out ordinary people gins and ends with Human Beings- their Aspirations.
Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward achievement of group goals.


  1. Personal Integrity 
  2. Willingness to accept responsibility
  3. Understanding People
  4. Communication
  5. Selflessness
  6. Confidence
  7. Intuition
  8. Vision
  9. Ability to make decisions
  10. Ability to simplify situations.

Leadership Perceptions


1.TRAITS theory of leadership
2.Leadership BEHAVIOUR theories
(a)    The Michigan Studies
(b)   The Ohio State Leadership Studies

CONTIGENCY Theories of Leadership
a)Tannenhaun & Schmidt’s Leadership Pattern
(b)Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
© Fiedler.s  Cognitive Resource Theory
(d)Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
(e)Hershey & Blanchard’s Situational Leadership
(f)Leader-Member Exchange Theory
4.Other APPROACHES TO Leadership
(a)    Likert’s System Four

(b)   The Managerial Grid.

function of management- organising

Good people can make any organization work but vagueness in organization is a good thing in that it forces teamwork. However, there can be no doubt that good people and those who want to cooperate will work together  most effectively if they know the parts they are to play in any team operation and the way their roles relate to one another.Designing and maintaining these systems of roles is basically the managerial function of organizing.
Organizing is :
1)      The identification and classification of required activities
2)      The grouping of activities necessary to attain objectives
3)      The assignment of each grouping to a manager(delegation) necessary to supervise it
4)      The provision for coordination horizontally( on the same or a similar organizational level)and vertically( for example corporate headquarters,division, and department) in the organizational structure
Organization implies a formalized intentional structure of roles and positions.
 Aspects of Organizing:
(a)Formal and Informal
(b)Span of Control
(c )Problems with levels in organization
     (1) Levels are expensive
     (2) Levels complicate communication
     (3) Levels complicate planning and control
The principle of the span management states that there is a limit to the number of subordinates a manager can effectively supervise, but the exact number will depend on the impact of underlying factors
(d) Gracuinas’ formula:
C= n ( 2    + n-1 )       c= number of relationships
                               n= number of subordinates
(a)    Richman’s case.

         Factors which affect the span of control:
1.       Amount of training
2.       Clarity and delegation of authority
3.       Clarity of plans and repetitiveness of operations
4.       Verifiability of objectives
5.       Changes in external and internal environments
6.       Communications techniques
7.       Interaction between superior and subordinates
8.       Meetings effectiveness
9.       Number of specialities at lower and middle levels
10.   Competence and training of the manager
11.   Complexity of the task
12.   Subordinates’ willingness to assume responsibility

Job Design:Jobs are the building blocks of Organizational Structure. Job Design refers to the process by which managers determine individual job tasks and authority. Apart from issues of effectiveness in economic, political and monetary terms, job designs have social and psychological implications. Job can provide income,meaningful life experiences,self-esteem,esteem from others, regulation and patterns of work flow, and association with others.
Besides seeking the most efficient way to do a series of tasks there is the issue of Quality of Work Life which refers to a satisfaction of worker’s personal needs.
Job design and redesign techniques attempt

  1. To identify the most important needs of employees and the organization and
  2. To remove obstacles in the workplace that frustrate those needs.

function of management- planning

Terminology used in planning:
  1. Objectives and Goals:They represent not only the end point in planning but also the end point for organizing,staffing, leading and controlling
  2. Strategies: is defined as the determination of the basic long-term objectives of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and allocation of resources necessary to achieve these goals.
  3. Policies:are also plans and define an area within which a decision is to be made and ensure that the decision will be consistent with, and contribute to, an objective.
  4. Procedures: are plans that establish a required method of handling future activities
  5. Rules: spell out specific required actions or non-actions, allowing no discretion
  6. Programs: are a complex of goals, policies, procedures, rules, task assignments, steps taken, resources to be employed, and other elements necessary.
 Planning is a vital and necessary management function. The functions of organizing, leading, and controlling all carry out the objectives and goals determined by planning. All organizations operate in uncertain environments and Planning helps it to adapt to change and uncertainty.Formal Planning is an activity that distinguishes managers from non-managers. Formal Planning distinguishes effective managers from ineffective ones.
Planning includes all the activities that lead to the definition of objectives and to the determination of appropriate courses of action to achieve those objectives.
There are the following 4 benefits to planning:
  1. Planning forces managers to think ahead
  2. It leads to the development of performance standards that enable more effective management control
  3. Having to formulate plans forces management to articulate clear objectives
  4. Planning enables an organization to be better prepared for sudden developments.
The 4 aspects can be explained in terms of:
(a)    Increasing time spans between present decisions and future results
(b)   Increasing organizational complexity
(c)    Increased external change
(d)   Planning and other management functions
      Types of Planning:
Although effective planning focuses on the custome and on issues of quality and competitiveness, planning activity differs in scope, time-frame, and level of detail.
Scope: refers to the range of activities covered by the plan
Time frame: is the period considered by the plan, ranging from short term and long term
Level of detail: concerns the specificity of the plan
There are 3 types of Plans:
  1. Strategic
  2. Operational
  3. Tactical.
Strategic Planning:The activities that lead to the definition of objectives for the entire organization and to the determination of appropriate strategies for achieving those objectives
Operational Planning:Translates the broad concepts of the strategic plan into clear numbers, specific steps, and measurable objectives in the short term
Tactical Planning: planning that deals more with issues of efficiency than with long term effectiveness 
There are the following elements in Planning:
  1. Objectives
  2. Actions
  3. Resources
  4. Implementation
      e.g. achieve a 12% ROI by end of 2009
             introducing 5 new products in 2009
             resources of Rs. 10 m.
             assignment and direction of personnel.

perspective management

Effective Managers are required in all types of organizations-big or small,manufacturing or service,profit-making or philantrophic. In fact, having talented people is so essential to the success of the organization expressed as “the ability to attract, develop and keep talented people.”
Managers have to have certain competencies for being effective.
“Competencies are a combination of knowledge, skills, behaviours, and attitudes that contribute to personal effectiveness.”
Managerial Competencies are sets of knowledge, skills, behaviours, and attitudes that a person needs to be effective in a wide range of positions and in various types of organizations.
There are six key managerial competencies:
  1. Communication
  2. Planning and Administration
  3. Teamwork
  4. Strategic Action
  5. Global Awareness
  6. Self-Management.
  7. Managerial functions are generally the same for first-line superiors, middle managers and top executives. Besides managers obtain the results by establishing an environment for effective and efficient performance of individuals working together in groups.
  8. Managerial knowledge is classified according to functions of Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading and Controlling .
  9. The Manager has to deal with the Internal and External Environment

Definition of Management
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims.
This definition when expanded means the following:
1.As managers, people carry out the managerial functions of planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling
2. Management applies to any kind of organization
3. It applies to managers at all levels
4. The aim of all managers is the same: to create a surplus
5. Managing is concerned with productivity; this implies efficiency and effectiveness
    Efficiency is ‘doing things right’;that is ,it is a measure of how well resources are used to achieve results
    Effectiveness is ‘doing the right things’;this is about selecting the right objectives to pursue in the first place
Managers should be both Efficient and Effective but effectiveness is the critical issue.
A manager’s most essential task is to see that everyone understands the group’s purposes and objectives and its methods of attaining them
Planning involves selecting missions and objectives and the actions to achieve them; that is choosing from among alternatives future courses of action.
Planning bridges the gap from where we are to where we want to be.
Planning by its very nature consists of 4 major aspects:
  1. Its contribution to purpose and objectives
  2. Its primacy among the manager’s tasks
  3. Its pervasiveness
  4. The efficiency of resulting plans

Planning and controlling are very closely connected and are inseparable. A plan without controlling aspects included or controls without planning both are useless for the manager and serve no purpose.

stastical process control

Statistical process control (SPC)
                conforming product. The application of statistical methods to the monitoring and control of a process to ensure that it operates at its full potential to produce.

  A process behaves predictably to produce as much conforming product as possible with the least possible waste.
  Has been applied most frequently to controlling manufacturing lines, it applies equally well to any process with a measurable output.
  Key Tools
  Control Charts
  Continuous Improvement
               Designed Experiments
Use of SPC
  It lies in the ability to examine a process and the sources of variation in that process using tools that give weight to objective analysis over subjective opinions and that allow the strength of each source to be determined numerically.
  Variations in the process that may affect the quality of the end product or service can be detected and corrected, thus reducing waste as well as the likelihood that problems will be passed on to the customer.
With its emphasis on early detection and prevention of problems, SPC has a distinct advantage over other quality methods, such as inspection, that apply resources to detecting and correcting problems after they have occurred.
  SPC was pioneered by Walter A. Shewhart in 1920.
  W.Edwards Deming later applied SPC in US.
  He successfully improved the manufacturing of munitions and other products.
  Dr.shewhart introduce the concept of control charts.
  He drew various mathematical and statistical theories, he found out that data from physical seldom creates a normal distribution.
  In 1989, the Software Engineering Institute introduced the notion that SPC can be usefully applied to non-manufacturing processes, such as software engineering processes.
Quality Measures of SPC
  a product characteristic that can be evaluated with a discrete response
  good – bad; yes – no
  a product characteristic that is continuous and can be measured
               weight – length.
SPC in Manufacturing Industry
  Traditional Control
  Traditionally achieved through post-manufacturing inspection of the product; accepting or rejecting each article (or samples from a production lot) based on how well it met its design specifications.
  Modern Control
Uses statistical tools to observe the performance of the production process in order to predict significant deviations that may later result in rejected product.

total quality..

TQM is a management approach for an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society.
Traditional working
¢  Overproduction
¢  Inventories
¢  Defective products
¢  Untapped resources
¢  Misused resources
¢  Delays (waiting time)
¢  Process
¢  Motions
     What is wrong with Traditional View?
¢  Acceptable product quality can be achieved by discarding defective products during inspection.
¢  Shoddy products with sloppy procedures may be continuing.
          No guarantee that only good products & services go to consumers.
             Modern Quality Management
¢  Quality management programs are viewed as productivity improvement programs. (Quality drives the productivity machine)
¢  Every piece of business must be done right the first time.
¢  Every piece of business must continue to improve.
            Change in working 
¢  Top management commitment & involvement
¢  Customer involvement
¢  Design products for quality
¢  Designing & controlling production process
¢  Developing supplier partnership
¢  Customer service, distribution, and installation
¢  Building teams of empowered employees
              Process improvement tools
  1. Flow charts
  2. Check sheets
  3. Histograms
  4. Pareto diagrams
  5. Cause-and-effect diagrams
  6. Scatter diagrams
  7. Control charts.

International Standardization..

What does International Standardization mean?
n  When the large majority of products or services in a particular business or industry sector conform to International Standards, a state of industry-wide standardization exists. The economic stakeholders concerned agree on specifications and criteria to be applied consistently in the classification of materials, in the manufacture and supply of products, in testing and analysis, in terminology and in the provision of services.
n  In this way, International Standards provide a reference framework, or a common technological language, between suppliers and their customers. This facilitates trade and the transfer of technology.
n  Because "International Organization for Standardization" would have different acronyms in different languages ("IOS" in English, "OIN" in French for Organisation internationale de normalisation), its founders decided to give it also a short, all-purpose name. They chose "ISO", derived from the Greek isos, meaning "equal". Whatever the country, whatever the language, the short form of the organization's name is always ISO.
n  ISO 9000 is a written set of standard which describe and define the basic elements/clauses of the quality system needed to ensure that an organization’s products/or services meet or exceed customer needs and expectations.
n  ISO 9000 is based on documentation and is premised on the following:-
n                  Document what you do;
n                  Do what your document;
                                                             Prove it and improve it.

                          ISO 9000 Implementation
n  Implementation of ISO 9000 affects the entire organization right from the start. If pursued with total dedication, it results in 'cultural transition' to an atmosphere of continuous improvement.
n  The process of implementing ISO 9000 depends on: 
n   The sophistication of your existing quality program,
n   The size of your organization
                           The complexity of your process.

14 Steps in implementing ISO 9000.
n  Step 1.  Top management commitment
n   Step 2. Establish implementation team
n   Step 3. Start ISO 9000 awareness programs
n   Step 4: Provide Training
n   Step 5. Conduct initial status survey
n   Step 6: Create a documented implementation plan
n   Step 7. Develop quality management system documentation
n  Step 8.   Document control
n   Step 9.   Implementation
n  Step 10.  Internal quality audit
n  Step 11.  Management review
n  Step 12.  Pre-assessment audit
n  Step 13.  Certification and registration
n  Step 14.  Continual Improvement.

Business Ethics...

Business Ethics Development
*      The cultural context influences organizational ethics
*      Top managers also influence ethics
*      The combined influence of culture and top management influence organizational ethics and ethical behaviors.
The Evolving Context for Ethics
*      From domestic where ethics are shared
*      To international where ethics are not shared when companies:
*      Make assumptions that ethics are the same
*      Ethical absolutism—they adapt to us
*      Ethical relativism—we adapt to them
*      To global which requires an integrative approach to ethics
Emergence of a Global Business Ethics
*        Growing sense that responsibility for righting social wrongs belongs to all organizations
*      Growing business need for integrative mechanisms such as ethics
*      Ethics reduce operating uncertainties
*      Voluntary guidelines avoid government impositions
*      Ethical conduct is needed in an increasingly interdependent world—everyone in the same game
*      Companies wish to avoid problems and/or be good public citizens
Ways Companies Integrate Ethics
*      Top management commitment in word and deed
*      Company codes of ethics
*      Supply chain codes
*      Develop, monitor, enforce ethical behavior
*      Seek external assistance.

CSR in Business!!

*      Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the process by which businesses negotiate their role in society
*      In the business world, ethics is the study of morally appropriate behaviors and decisions, examining what "should be done
*      Although the two are linked in most firms, CSR activities is no guarantee of ethical behavior
*      An Internet search turns up 15,000 plus response to “corporate citizenship”
*      Journals increasingly “rate” businesses (and NGOs) on socially responsive criteria:
*      Best place to work
*      Most admired
*      Best (and worst) corporate reputation
*      CSR activities are important to and even expected by the public
*      And they are easily monitored worldwide
*      CSR activities help organizations hire and retain the people they want
*      CSR activities contribute to business performance.
*      CSR are Grounded by Opposing Objectives (Maximize Profits to Balance Profits with Social Responsibility) and so Activities Range Widely.
*      Do what it takes to make a profit; skirt the law; fly below social radar
*      Fight CSR initiatives
*      Comply with legal requirements
*      Do more than legally required, e.g., philanthropy
*      Articulate social (CSR) objectives
*      Integrate social objectives and business goals
*      Lead the industry on social objectives.
Businesses CSR Activities
*      Philanthropy
*      give money or time or in kind to charity
*      Integrative philanthropy—select beneficiaries aligned with company interests
*      Philanthropy will not enhance corporate reputation if a company
*      fails to live up to its philanthropic image or
*      if consumers perceive philanthropy to be manipulative.
Integrate CSR Globally
*      Incorporate values to make it part of an articulated belief system
*      Act worldwide on those values
*      Cause-related marketing
*      Cause-based cross sector partnerships
*      Engage with stakeholders
*      Primary stakeholders
*      Secondary stakeholders.